African Women Immigrants in the United States: Crossing Transnational Borders

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Chapters four to seven amplify the voices of West African women immigrants. Chapter four describes the grave political realities in war-torn countries such as Liberia and Sierra Leone and their adverse effects on women and children. The touching personal narratives reveal how the memory of war lingers. The question of how African women construct meanings from their identity as Black female migrants receives adequate attention in chapter five.

One of the ways by which migrant women make meaning out of their experience is through the formation of transnational networks. These networks connect migrant women with extended family members in their home countries and with other people of Black ancestry within America. The fluid and cross-cultural identity these women create help deconstruct notions of an invisible Black cultural experience.

Crossing African Borders

It is puzzling to the reviewer that Arthur fails to acknowledge the tensions that exist between West African female immigrants and African Americans in their pursuit of economic goals and higher standard of living. The two case studies serve as pointers for understanding how migrant women deal with the complex issues of race, class, and identity. The chapter portrays female migrants as mobile workers engaging in constant secondary migrations in search of better labor opportunities.

The second case study sheds light on the experiences of educated migrant women and their survival strategies. The next chapter turns to a controversial subject: immigrant fertility behavior. Arthur acknowledges the complexity involved in studying the fertility behavior of women who straddle between fertility ideas prevalent in Africa and those practiced in the United States. Overall, the study suggests that certain considerations such as economic and educational objectives shape the fertility behavior of West African women.

Some refuse American models of fertility, with an appreciable number increasingly shifting to pronatality. Future research on Black immigration, he argues, should develop theories on the transnational familial networks established by Black immigrants and explore the ways in which they engage in political activities in their countries of origin as well as in their host countries. The concluding chapter includes plausible recommendations that political leaders and policy makers will find useful for formulating immigration policies.

Overall, the book is well written, constructed with a jargon free and powerful prose strong enough to hold the attention of advanced readers and the general public. The program runs until 19 December Many, such as executives, professionals, scientists, artists, or athletes working for either Mexican or foreign companies, arrive with secure jobs.

Retirement is the main motivation for immigrants who tend to be more permanent. Aside from dual national descendants of Mexicans, naturalized Mexicans, or the undocumented, , foreign residents live on its soil.

African Women Immigrants in the United States: Crossing Transnational Borders — {essays in history}

The majority of its foreign residents are from the U. The largest number of Americans outside the United States live in Mexico. According to Mexico Census, there are , Americans living in the Mexican Republic, [1] while the US Embassy in Mexico City has at times given an estimate closer to 1 million the disparity is due to non-permanent residents, notably the " snowbirds ".

While significant numbers live in Mexico year round, it is probable that a majority of these residents do not stay the whole year. Retirees may live half a year in the U. Those called "snowbirds" come in fall and leave in spring. The American community in Mexico is found throughout the country, but there are significant concentrations of U. Also in the central parts of the country such as San Miguel de Allende , Ajijic , Chapala , Mexico City and Cuernavaca , and along the Pacific coast, most especially in the greater Puerto Vallarta area.

In , Mexico began to more heavily crackdown on these transient migrants. Cuban immigration to Mexico has been on the rise in recent years. A large number of them use Mexico as a route to the U. About 63, Cubans live in Mexico [17]. Argentine immigration to Mexico started in small waves during the s, when they started escaping dictatorship and war in Argentina. Currently, the Argentine community is one of the largest in Mexico, with about 13, documented residents living in Mexico.

However, extra-official estimates range the number from 40, to , [18] [19]. In Quintana Roo , the number of Argentines doubled between and , and now make a total of 10,, making up the largest number of foreigners in the state [20]. It is estimated that a total of 73, Colombians reside in Mexico. Although Mexico never received massive European immigration after its independence , over 1 million Europeans immigrated to Spanish America during the colonial period, which relative to the population of the time, could be said to have been massive European immigration.

Although they were in their majority from Spain, other Europeans immigrated illegally. They migrated to Mexico for the most part, and to a lesser extent, Peru. They were called "inmigrantes clandestinos", of which , were Spanish. Towards the end of the Porfiriato , there were an estimated , to , foreigners in the country. From to , , immigrants arrived in Mexico, [23] the majority of which were from Europe.

There are many Mexicans of English , Welsh and Scottish descent. According to Mexico's Migration Institute in there were 3, British expatriates living in Mexico. Cornish culture still survives in local architecture and food in the state of Hidalgo. The Scottish and Welsh have also made their mark in Mexico, especially in the states of Hidalgo , Jalisco , Aguascalientes , and Veracruz.

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British immigrants formed the first football teams in Mexico in the late 19th century. Northern Spaniards of Celtic ancestry like the Asturians , Galicians , and Cantabrians , have also left an imprint in Mexican culture and their languages formed many distinct accents in various regions in Mexico, especially in the central and northern states.

Mexico received immigration from France in waves in the 19th and 20th centuries. According to the census, there were 7, French nationals living in Mexico. According to the French consulate general, there are 30, French citizens in Mexico as of The French language is often taught and studied in secondary public education and in universities throughout the country. French may also be heard occasionally in the state of Veracruz in the cities of Jicaltepec , San Rafael , Mentideros , and Los Altos , where the architecture and food is also very French.

Other French cultural traits are in a number of regional cultures such as the states of Jalisco and Sinaloa. The national folk music mariachi is thought to have been named after the French word for "marriage" when the music developed in wedding parties held by French landowning families. It is the legacy of settlers brought in during the Napoleonic-era French occupation is found in Guadalajara, Jalisco. The Second Mexican Empire , created another trend of refuge for French settlers. The Belgians, started by the veteran Ch. The Occitan language can be heard in the state of Guanajuato , it is also known as Langue d'oc is a language originally spoken in Southern France.

Also to note is the city Guanajuato has a sizable French expatriate community. The Plautdietsch language , is spoken by descendants of German and Dutch Mennonite immigrants in the states of Chihuahua and Durango. According to the census, there were 6, Germans living in Mexico. There are about 2,, Mexicans with some partial German ancestry, without counting the ones with total German ancestry, making Mexico 3rd country with the largest German community in Latin America, behind Brazil and Argentina.

There is also an Irish-Mexican population in Hidalgo and the northern states. Many Mexican Irish communities existed in Mexican Texas until the revolution. Civil War — Actor Anthony Quinn is another famous Mexican of Irish descent. There are also monuments in Mexico City paying tribute to those Irish who fought for Mexico in the 19th century. There has not been a huge influx of Italians to Mexico, as there has been to other countries in America such as Argentina, Brazil, and the United States. However, there was an important number of arrivals from northern Italy and Veneto in the late 19th century who are today well assimilated in Mexican society.

The exact number of Italian descendants is not known, but it is estimated that there around 85, Italian Mexicans in the eight original communities. As of , 20, Italians reside in Mexico [26]. Most left Russia during its communist regime Soviet Union , taking advantage of the Mexican law allowing migrants from communist countries refuge if they touch Mexican soil, and the ability to become legal residents of Mexico.

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Spaniards make up the largest group of Europeans in Mexico. Most of them arrived during the colonial period but others have since then immigrated, especially during the Spanish Civil War —39 and the Francisco Franco regime — At the end of the 16th century, both common and aristocrat people migrated to Mexico and disseminated by its territory. Most recent immigrants came during the Spanish Civil War.

Some of the migrants returned to Spain after the civil war, but some of them remained in Mexico. According to the census, there were 18, Spaniards living in Mexico. Due to the Financial Crisis and the resulting economic decline and high unemployment in Spain, many Spaniards have been emigrating to Mexico to seek new opportunities. The article on Basque Mexicans covers the large segment of Spaniards and some French immigrants of the Basque ethnic group. Mexico has seen immigration from different parts of Asia throughout its history. The first known Asians arrived during the Colonial era as slaves, labourers and adventurers from the Philippines , southern China and India.

African Women Immigrants in the United States

This group of immigrants were collectively described as "Chino" meaning Chinese despite coming from many diverse origins. These immigrants were known as Henequen and Chinetescos and were heavily concentrated in agricultural plantations in the Pacific states e. A more recent wave late 20th and early 21st century of Korean immigrants have arrived as merchants and skilled labourers.

The story of Chinese immigration to Mexico extends from the late 19th century to the s. By the s, there was a significant population of Chinese nationals, with Mexican wives and Chinese-Mexican children. Most of these were deported in the s to the United States and China with a number being repatriated in the late s and in Smaller groups returned from the s to the s. The culture and language from the mainly Cantonese and Mandarin -speaking peoples are evident in the food, architecture, and everyday life in Mexico City.

The Chinese entered the nation in the 19th century to build railroads, and many xenophobic acts were taken against them because Mexico preferred European immigrants. According to the Census there are 6, Chinese immigrants living in Mexico. The Japanese language is important in their cultural life in Mexico and many institutions for nikkei exist and those wishing to learn the language and their ways of life can attend these lyceums.

French police block African immigrants trying to cross the border from Italy

Other Asian communities in Mexico are Indians and Pakistanis followed by Filipinos from the Philippines when the country was under Spanish colonial 's and U. American territorial rule — These ethnic groups arrived in the northern states of Mexico as contract farm laborers in the 20th century.

And a small Vietnamese community that has close connections with the Vietnamese American community in the United States. There are approximately , 0. The Philippines had a connection to Mexico through Spain, as it was administrated from New Spain for over years.

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