### Excel 2007 PivotTables Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach

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In addition, password-cracking programs can brute-force attack passwords at a rate of hundreds of thousands of passwords a second, which not only lets them decrypt a document, but also find the original password. Due to the CSP, an Excel file can't be decrypted, and thus the password to open can't be removed, though the brute-force attack speed remains quite high. The situation changed fundamentally in Excel , where the modern AES algorithm with a key of bits started being used for decryption, and a 50,fold use of the hash function SHA1 reduced the speed of brute-force attacks down to hundreds of passwords per second.

In Excel , the strength of the protection by the default was increased two times due to the use of a ,fold SHA1 to convert a password to a key.

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Microsoft Excel Viewer was a freeware program for viewing and printing spreadsheet documents created by Excel. Excel Viewer is similar to Microsoft Word Viewer in functionality.

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There is not a current version for the Mac. In addition to issues with spreadsheets in general, other problems specific to Excel include numeric precision, misleading statistics functions, mod function errors, date limitations and more. Despite the use of figure precision, Excel can display many more figures up to thirty upon user request. But the displayed figures are not those actually used in its computations, and so, for example, the difference of two numbers may differ from the difference of their displayed values.

Although such departures are usually beyond the 15th decimal, exceptions do occur, especially for very large or very small numbers. Serious errors can occur if decisions are made based upon automated comparisons of numbers for example, using the Excel If function , as equality of two numbers can be unpredictable. Although this number has a decimal representation that is an infinite string of ones, Excel displays only the leading 15 figures. In the second line, the number one is added to the fraction, and again Excel displays only 15 figures.

In the third line, one is subtracted from the sum using Excel. Because the sum in the second line has only eleven 1's after the decimal, the difference when 1 is subtracted from this displayed value is three 0's followed by a string of eleven 1's. However, the difference reported by Excel in the third line is three 0's followed by a string of thirteen 1's and two extra erroneous digits. This is because Excel calculates with about half a digit more than it displays. Excel works with a modified version of the IEEE specification. See the main article for details. Besides accuracy in user computations, the question of accuracy in Excel-provided functions may be raised.

Particularly in the arena of statistical functions, Excel has been criticized for sacrificing accuracy for speed of calculation. As many calculations in Excel are executed using VBA , an additional issue is the accuracy of VBA, which varies with variable type and user-requested precision.

The accuracy and convenience of statistical tools in Excel has been criticized, [56] [57] [58] [59] [60] as mishandling missing data, as returning incorrect values due to inept handling of round-off and large numbers, as only selectively updating calculations on a spreadsheet when some cell values are changed, and as having a limited set of statistical tools. Microsoft has announced some of these issues are addressed in Excel Excel has issues with modulo operations.

In the case of excessively large results, Excel will return the error warning NUM! Excel includes February 29, , incorrectly treating as a leap year , even though e. Thus a not necessarily whole number greater than or equal to 61 interpreted as a date and time is the real number of days after December 30, , , a non-negative number less than 60 is the number of days after December 31, , , and numbers with whole part 60 represent the fictional day.

Excel supports dates with years in the range , except that December 31, can be entered as 0 and is displayed as 0-jan Converting a fraction of a day into hours, minutes and days by treating it as a moment on the day January 1, , does not work for a negative fraction. Entering text that happens to be in a form that is interpreted as a date, the text can be unintentionally changed to a standard date format. A similar problem occurs when a text happens to be in the form of a floating point notation of a number.

In these cases the original exact text cannot be recovered from the result. This issue has caused a well known problem in the analysis of DNA , for example in bioinformatics. As first reported in , [69] genetic scientists found that Excel automatically and incorrectly converts certain gene names into dates.

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A follow-up study in [70] found many peer reviewed scientific journal papers had been affected and that "Of the selected journals, the proportion of published articles with Excel files containing gene lists that are affected by gene name errors is The following functions return incorrect results when passed a string longer than characters: [74]. Microsoft Excel will not open two documents with the same name and instead will display the following error:. The reason is for calculation ambiguity with linked cells.

Microsoft originally marketed a spreadsheet program called Multiplan in Microsoft released the first version of Excel for the Macintosh on September 30, , and the first Windows version was 2. This accomplishment solidified Microsoft as a valid competitor and showed its future of developing GUI software. Microsoft maintained its advantage with regular new releases, every two years or so. Excel 2.

Versions prior to 2. The first Windows version was labeled "2" to correspond to the Mac version. This included a run-time version of Windows.

The magazine stated that the port of the "extraordinary" Macintosh version "shines", with a user interface as good as or better than the original. Included toolbars, drawing capabilities, outlining, add-in support, 3D charts, and many more new features. Introduced auto-fill.

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## Excel PivotTables Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach (Expert's Voice in .Net) - 程序园

Also, an easter egg in Excel 4. With version 5. VBA is a powerful addition to the application and includes a fully featured integrated development environment IDE. Macro recording can produce VBA code replicating user actions, thus allowing simple automation of regular tasks. The language supports use but not creation of ActiveX COM DLL 's; later versions add support for class modules allowing the use of basic object-oriented programming techniques.

The automation functionality provided by VBA made Excel a target for macro viruses. This caused serious problems until antivirus products began to detect these viruses. Microsoft belatedly took steps to prevent the misuse by adding the ability to disable macros completely, to enable macros when opening a workbook or to trust all macros signed using a trusted certificate. Versions 5. Released in with Microsoft Office for Windows 95 , this is the first major version after Excel 5.

## Excel 2007 PivotTables Recipes (E-Book, PDF)

Included in Office 97 for x86 and Alpha. This was a major upgrade that introduced the paper clip office assistant and featured standard VBA used instead of internal Excel Basic. It introduced the now-removed Natural Language labels. This version of Excel includes a flight simulator as an Easter Egg. Included in Office This was a minor upgrade, but introduced an upgrade to the clipboard where it can hold multiple objects at once.

The Office Assistant, whose frequent unsolicited appearance in Excel 97 had annoyed many users, became less intrusive. Included in Office XP.

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Very minor enhancements. Minor enhancements, most significant being the new Tables. This release was a major upgrade from the previous version.

Similar to other updated Office products, Excel in used the new Ribbon menu system. This was different from what users were used to, and was met with mixed reactions. One study reported fairly good acceptance by users except highly experienced users and users of word processing applications with a classical WIMP interface , but was less convinced in terms of efficiency and organisation. Added functionality included the SmartArt set of editable business diagrams.

Also added was an improved management of named variables through the Name Manager , and much improved flexibility in formatting graphs, which allow x, y coordinate labeling and lines of arbitrary weight. Several improvements to pivot tables were introduced. Specifically, many of the size limitations of previous versions were greatly increased. To illustrate, the number of rows was now 1,, 2 20 and columns was 16, 2 14 ; the far-right column is XFD. Included in Office , this is the next major version after v Minor enhancements and bit support, [86] including the following:.

Included in Office , along with a lot of new tools included in this release:. Excel offers many user interface tweaks over the earliest electronic spreadsheets; however, the essence remains the same as in the original spreadsheet software, VisiCalc : the program displays cells organized in rows and columns, and each cell may contain data or a formula, with relative or absolute references to other cells. Excel became the first spreadsheet to allow the user to define the appearance of spreadsheets fonts, character attributes and cell appearance.

It also introduced intelligent cell recomputation, where only cells dependent on the cell being modified are updated previous spreadsheet programs recomputed everything all the time or waited for a specific user command. Excel introduced auto-fill, the ability to drag and expand the selection box to automatically copy cell or row contents to adjacent cells or rows, adjusting the copies intelligently by automatically incrementing cell references or contents. Excel also introduced extensive graphing capabilities.

Because Excel is widely used, it has been attacked by hackers. While Excel is not directly exposed to the Internet, if an attacker can get a victim to open a file in Excel, and there is an appropriate security bug in Excel, then the attacker can get control of the victim's computer. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Spreadsheet editor, part of Microsoft Office. A simple line chart being created in Excel, running on Windows Office Main article: Spreadsheet.