Mantle Plumes and Their Effects
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However, more data with better age resolution are required to test the applicability of the Hawaiian model at the Samoan volcanoes.
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- Earth’s volcanic ‘hot spots’ are in constant motion.
In the well-studied Marquesas and Society hotspot volcanoes the change from shield to postshield and rejuvenated volcanism is comparable to that observed at Hawaiian volcanoes Figure 6. The interpretation of the preshield volcanism is similarly complicated for Hawaii, Society, and Marquesas because this stage is mainly known from few samples from single submarine volcanoes without a clear relation to shield volcanism.
We suggest that the Hawaiian model explains the observed systematic variation of magma composition with time as a reflection of variable degrees of partial melting due to movement of the plate across a plume. Some inter-shield variability within the Marquesas, Society, and the Hawaiian island chain Figure 3 can be observed between the islands of the northern- and islands of the southern groups Abouchami et al. The physically different source components contribute to the formation of the shield volcanoes over small spatial distances of less than few km's Pietruszka and Garcia, strongly supporting the complex and heterogeneous nature of plumes and their surrounding mantle material.
The presence of tholeiitic, large degree melts during the shield stages may be restricted to large, stationary plume systems that preferentially have larger buoyancy fluxes leading to larger degrees of partial melting. On the other hand, the extremely enriched and SiO 2 -undersaturated melts of the Hawaiian rejuvenated magmas may indicate either more variable mantle sources or remelting of enriched sources by the extremely hot Hawaiian plume.
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We conclude that the evolution of ocean island volcanoes through distinct volcanological, petrological, and geochemical stages does not strictly follow the Hawaiian model and chemical variation is smaller but that the compositional changes between the different stages are clearly discernable. The limited age and compositional data of lavas from the Pacific hotspots reveal systematic variations of magma composition with age in most volcanoes where the late lavas are typically more enriched in incompatible elements and more alkaline than those of the shield stage.
The Society and Marquesas hotspots show basanitic submarine volcanism apparently preceding the shield stage with alkali basaltic magmas. This variation most likely reflects the movement of the lithospheric plate across a thermal mantle plume forming a zoned melting anomaly with variable degrees of partial melting. However, more data with combined chemical and age constraints are required to better define the evolution of the intraplate magmatic systems. Existing data indicate that the shield stages of the well-studied volcanoes last about 1 million years and seem to similar for both strong and weak plumes.
Because the velocity of the Pacific Plate is similar at the studied hotspots this implies similar sizes of the melting anomalies although the temperatures in the mantle plumes differ. The overlap of shield and postshield stage volcanism for up to kyrs is also typical at different hotspots and indicates about 20 km wide transitional melting zone at the flank of the plume during which there are contemporaneous eruptions of both shield stage and postshield stage melts through distinctively different channels of ascent.
More age and geochemical data of stratigraphically controlled samples are required from different volcanoes in order to understand the trends of magma evolution, melting processes, and mantle dynamics. CB and KH compiled data, wrote the manuscript, and prepared the figures. FK worked on the initial data compilation and filtering and contributed ideas.
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. We thank the editor Adriano Pimentel for inviting this contribution and for his patience during the completion of this manuscript. We acknowledge the helpful and constructive reviews by J. Shellnutt, I. Smith, and D.
Geist that have considerably improved the quality of this work. CB acknowledges support by I. Abouchami, W. Lead isotopes reveal bilateral asymmetry and vertical continuity in the Hawaiian mantle plume. Nature , — Adam, C.
South Pacific hotspot swells dynamically supported by mantle flows. Binard, N. Styles of eruptive activity on intraplate volcanoes in the Society and Austral hot spot regions: bathymetry, petrology, and submersible observations. Brey, G. The role of CO 2 in the genesis of olivine melilitite.
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Chen, C. The tholeiite to alkalic basalt transition at Haleakala Volcano, Maui, Hawaii. Clague, D.
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The question of mantle plumes
Temporal and geochemical variability of volcanic products of the Marquesas Hotspot. Detrick, R. Heat flow on the Hawaiian Swell and lithospheric reheating. Devey, C. Active submarine volcanism on the Society Hotspot Swell west Pacific : a geochemical study. Giving birth to hotspot volcanoes: distribution and composition of young seamounts from the seafloor near Tahiti and Pitcairn islands.
Geology 31, — Duncan, R. Tahiti: geochemical evolution of a French Polynesian volcano. Hotspots, mantle plumes, flood basalts, and true polar wander. Dymond, J. K-Ar ages of Tahiti and Moorea, society Islands, and implications for the hot-spot model. Geology 3, — Farnetani, C.
The thermal state of the upper mantle; No role for mantle plumes
Dynamics and internal structure of the Hawaiian plume. French, S. Broad plumes rooted at the base of the Earth's mantle beneath major hotspots. Nature , 95— Frey, F. Geochemical characteristics of Koolau Volcano: implications of intershield geochemical differences among Hawaiian volcanoes. Acta 58, — The evolution of Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii: petrogenesis of tholeiitic and alkalic basalts. Integrated models of basalt petrogenesis: a study of quartz tholeiites to olivine melilitites from south eastern Australia utilizing geochemical and experimental petrological data.
Evolution of Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii: petrologic and geochemical constraints on postshield volcanism.
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Gripp, A. Young tracks of hotspots and current plate velocities. Guillou, H. Volcanic successions in Marquesas eruptive centers: a departure from the Hawaiian model. Hart, S. Vailulu'u undersea volcano: the new Samoa. Hauri, E. Major-element variability in the Hawaiian mantle plume. Herzberg, C. XLS software for primary magma calculation. Hildenbrand, A. Volcano-tectonic and geochemical evolution of an oceanic intra-plate volcano: Tahiti-Nui French Polynesia.
Hirose, K. Partial melt compositions of carbonated peridotite at 3 GPa and role of CO 2 in alkali-basalt magma generation.